War crimes, crimes against humanity, aggression and genocide – international law recognises many international crimes. Johann Schiller (1759-1805) Wesowanactandreapahabit: Other crimes defined by international conventions include counterfeiting, the theft of cultural property or archeological treasures, the crime of apartheid, and the threat or use of force against internationally protected persons such as diplomats. Consequently, in addition to preventing the occurrence of these particularly heinous crimes, all states have an interest in holding the perpetrators of such crimes accountable. On Wednesday, 4 March, the Pre-Trial Chamber of the International Criminal Court (ICC) announced its decision to issue a warrant for the arrest of the Sudanese President, Omar Hassan al-Bashir, for crimes against humanity and war crimes (Read here Decision [PDF], Summary of the Decision [PDF], Arrest Warrant [PDF], and Press Release). stream States must uphold them while also respecting their own national principles of … Y. Other international crimes. )�\p \��kv����l��G��#F����e����`��'En ��+����jc �@����Z�js~��B���(�4\��ۣ0�cH=#��ΚLш9�ո�J�� )�̋h���xfթ��e��f��9\DCn���%DjscC����F�����'��>�� $_���` �A�(0���4$�b� �%_��$�l �HCz̺!��D�ys�&fƠ��K�M�.VSbC�\8�0�9_fAt�X��GD;� IQ����D�T�b���ds����m�L�9�. For example the list of war crimes in non-international armed conflicts in Art. 2612 While international law typically concerns inter-state relations, international criminal law concerns individuals. Using the term genocide can have far-reaching implications. 76 0 obj <> endobj 97 0 obj <>/Encrypt 77 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<5C456920DCC547068D7775ED9D84C54A>]/Index[76 40]/Info 75 0 R/Length 97/Prev 326289/Root 78 0 R/Size 116/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream This report shows the scale and impacts of environmental crime and calls for strong political will to tackle it as a matter of urgency. 7. International Criminal Law and Enforcement of International Humanitarian Law 53 7.1 Purpose and definition 54 7.2 National prosecutions for war crimes and international crimes 55 7.3 The International Criminal Court 56 Notes 61 References 65 Contents ICVS - International Crime Victims Survey The main database for the ICVS can be downloaded from this section of the internet site. International criminal law - International criminal law - Prosecution and defense: When ordinary crimes cross the threshold and become international crimes, important consequences ensue. Much past research on crime has been confounded by its focus on these politico-legal rather than behavioral definitions. endstream War crimes, crimes against humanity, aggression and genocide – international law recognises many international crimes. It was actually born at a workshop of the International Feminist Conference held in Frankfurt in November, 1974, None of these, however, attract the same attention as genocide does. PDF | The articles describes the concept and definition of war crimes in International Criminal Law and International Humanitarian Law | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate ratione personae) con-tinues to apply even where prosecution is sought for international crimes. International criminal law, body of laws, norms, and rules governing international crimes and their repression, as well as rules addressing conflict and cooperation between national criminal-law systems.See also international law; conflict of laws.. Criminal law prohibits and punishes behaviour judged to be antisocial. ix Transnational Crime and the Developing World Glossary ACT Anti-Counterfeiting Tool AML Anti-money laundering ATS Amphetamine-type stimulants Avg. What makes international crimes different from ordinary domestic crimes is a context in which they occur. �C�-����(�������"�|"�y�}�o�҉}�9���E����?��C���hz~!�������+��#��r�}���ΐ��_��ii�7���?�Rf����Qz)�������2��̠�`9�((�q�S�R�������fu�҃�����}h��f]6���%.����0脪��W�OP{R��H����RXް ���M�^t�gk��.q7�/���z��B�k�X���ێ��z�����T�k�Ks�á�tV�m�iI���z�hv�F�\d4�gҩ��A_ͥ��.�xB]Xs��T2q)�8�83���t2\�䐜�l�LO;�N���q�k5���-w��@��JM4T%\��u�o���V��?1���3&�co�h,m��3��n|͝P/Nn�ֽ�yl���F��|��Ul�����(��Ei���vJl׀i���r� ���I�^�4��ʽ,8v3cf Australia's offshore detention is unlawful, says international criminal court prosecutor Published: 14 Feb 2020 Sudan signals it may send former dictator Omar al-Bashir to ICC %PDF-1.6 %���� The Court has jurisdiction in accordance with this Statute with respect to the following crimes: (a) The crime of genocide; (b) Crimes against humanity; (c) War crimes; (d) The crime of aggression.” 6. This report is a resource to assist in the effective analysis, prosecution, and adjudication of crimes … 1. 2 0 obj The guest co-editors, Emma Irving, Alexa Koenig, Yvonne McDermott, and Daragh Murray, together with the Journal of International Criminal Justice Editorial Board, invite paper submissions for a forthcoming symposium on new technologies and the investigation of international crimes. The repression of serious An International Criminal Court ("the Court") is hereby established. endobj ��K0ށi���A����B�ZyCAP8�C���@��&�*���CP=�#t�]���� 4�}���a � ��ٰ;G���Dx����J�>���� ,�_“@��FX�DB�X$!k�"��E�����H�q���a���Y��bVa�bJ0՘c�VL�6f3����bձ�X'�?v 6��-�V`�`[����a�;���p~�\2n5��׌���� �&�x�*���s�b|!� International Criminal Law (ICL) is a relatively new and constantly developing branch of public international law. We argue that personal immunity (immunity . 2012] Prosecuting International Crimes in Australia 3 committing international crimes.9 In 2002, the Commonwealth Parliament passed the International Criminal Court (Consequential Amendments) Act 2002 (Cth) to amend the Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth) (‘Criminal Code’) in order to incorporate international crimes recognised by the International Criminal Court against the person that underlie the international offenses of genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes—offenses such as unlawful killing, rape, and assault. View international crime.pdf from SOC 217 at Queens College, CUNY. International criminal law: Genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes International crimes are considered to affect the international community as a whole. In this way, the �FV>2 u�����/�_$\�B�Cv�< 5]�s.,4�&�y�Ux~xw-bEDCĻH����G��KwF�G�E�GME{E�EK�X,Y��F�Z� �={$vr����K���� The ICC investigates and prosecutes individuals responsible for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity committed since July 1, 2002—in cases where countries are unwilling or … /Rotate 0 >> The jurisdiction and International crime is crime of the most serious sort. ���\�E�I��Gf���/}?���N]��L�+���*�@/S�Ĩ���s�8l��N�����H5cI)��ܤ�������Ğ�/#��@:��=��B��� 6 0 obj x�Z�r��}�Wt��*�mp�S$f�H^9�Ǖ�~����D\P+�R���O��3�.0ĺT��.�AO����=��$?�'I�����L]ו���*)M�����/��'���,q���>Gi>��}�����ȓ�ѭ�y'az&Ϳe��*��O'���42�\*e\EYau3�5�c����*���Yg���/?�o��_p��,��_sx��7�r�w�w����rI,%*r�K�b�&��Bb!v�GuU�x\�0Y$�����W+L��X����\�+�� ��Yл�a���.����!��%o�Zi�L؉�(��.l�]�����ɝ�崿��n�#1� -ׇ���t B��v��Xn������"��Gi�Lԣ��~;��yGqU� lQ��J�Z�f�(A���q�Js%S|� ~�1GvU%��s)�r}Ңyau|�0|��y�fo� {��x���*?����1Wq�K,�q�\V���I��=��45�Yj��_��|��œ �4G�3-��J�b�?�=>H��4i��;���{'?�RD��p$/�uOr��`�C����!d�B��=ܝ4'���n�y�Yꋬ��J]h��xI�~�p�*��:"���D?N&��mZ����n �H��:����v����ݹ\\_Z���'|N��,V���[7�=�:Ѡ��h����R�����]3y���k&j��l� Genocide is defined as “the intention to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, This paper mainly focuses on the various types of cyber crime like crimes endobj Dormann, War Crimes under the Rome Statute of the ICC 345 tions.? international crime classification was developed by the Task Force and approved by the Conference of European Statisticians at the 60th plenary session in June 2012.7 The proposal to develop a full international crime classification was discussed at the 43rd session of the United Nations Statistical Commission (UNSC)8 ix Transnational Crime and the Developing World Glossary ACT Anti-Counterfeiting Tool AML Anti-money laundering ATS Amphetamine-type stimulants Avg. endobj understand crimes such as homicide, robbery, rape, burglary, embezzlement, and heroin use, we need to identify what it is they all have in common. international crimes to a broader ‘system of justice’ (International Criminal Court 2013a, §22), in which different levels of jurisdiction complement each other. It is factors such as the existence of an armed conflict or the sytematicity or scale of violations that mark the difference to ordinary offenses. Date. While there is no consensus here either, several attempts have been made by legal scholars to define the key characteristics of international crimes. The jurisdiction and functioning of the Court shall be governed by the provisions of this Statute. The blame diminishes as the guilt increases. A wider approach defines war crimes as all acts constituting a violation of the laws or customs of war, irrespective of whether the conduct is criminal (Werle and Jessberger [2014] 391; US Army Military Manual, § 499, FM 27–10; JS Pictet, ed, Geneva Convention I [1957] 351). x��wTS��Ͻ7��" %�z �;HQ�I�P��&vDF)VdT�G�"cE��b� �P��QDE�݌k �5�ޚ��Y�����g�}׺ P���tX�4�X���\���X��ffG�D���=���HƳ��.�d��,�P&s���"7C$ June 2016. International criminal law involves the most serious crimes of concern to the global community: its violations can result in imprisonment. Such grave crimes must be investigated and the perpetrators brought to justice, wherever they may be and regardless of nationality. 2012] Prosecuting International Crimes in Australia 3 committing international crimes.9 In 2002, the Commonwealth Parliament passed the International Criminal Court (Consequential Amendments) Act 2002 (Cth) to amend the Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth) (‘Criminal Code’) in order to incorporate international crimes recognised by the International Criminal Court << /Length 17 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> For centuries piracy has been recognized as an international crime under customary international law. This book clearly sets out the international criminal law framework. [7A�\�SwBOK/X/_�Q�>Q�����G�[��� �`�A�������a�a��c#����*�Z�;�8c�q��>�[&���I�I��MS���T`�ϴ�k�h&4�5�Ǣ��YY�F֠9�=�X���_,�,S-�,Y)YXm�����Ěk]c}džj�c�Φ�浭�-�v��};�]���N����"�&�1=�x����tv(��}�������'{'��I�ߝY�)� Σ��-r�q�r�.d.�_xp��Uە�Z���M׍�v�m���=����+K�G�ǔ����^���W�W����b�j�>:>�>�>�v��}/�a��v���������O8� � International Statistics on Crime and Criminal Justice Steven Malby* Homicide Abstract This chapter presents available data on the crime of intentional homicide – the intentional killing of a person by another. speak of ‚international™ or ‚transboundary™ environmental crime. Which features of international crimes set this category apart from ordinary crimes? << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ColorSpace << /Cs1 7 0 R >> /Font << /TT5 12 0 R State sovereignty - the authority of an independent state to govern itself. It is a mark of greatness to steal a crown. Despite the fact that the Rome Statute contains an impressive list of war crimes, not all of the serious violations of international … International Crimes Download the 4-page document 148.29 Kb, PDF Download. jurisdiction of the Court shall be limited to the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole. ��z5Һ���7�K���w��k�~N�b�o��$z�(����s9k��' �P���+ �aT��8��4Nc�;�n]��1�_�"[$/.�S��&,��F���A����~>�R�'������45�\^C�=�+Q�,7�]p��3T����TF|�'��9J���E$�rt�4� When allegations of genocide are raised, the world pricks up its ears. E.03.V.2 and corrigendum), part II.B. Third Edition. combating impunity for international crimes . In the Netherlands, we want to ensure that victims of international crime who seek asylum in this country will not be confronted with the J. Int’l L. 953, 962 (2003) (“Uniquely, however, these core offences provide for individual criminal liability for their violation, even Features throughout the text are used to equip readers with the tools to consider and assess the current status of the law and encourage critical analysis of the latest debates By punishing perpetrators, the notion that international crimes … INTERPOL enables police in our 194 member countries to work together to fight international crime. Using the term genocide can have far-reaching implications. [ /ICCBased 13 0 R ] Since international crimes increasingly include extraterritorial elements, requiring enhanced interaction between States, it is becoming more pressing to coordinate respect for these principles. Crimes Against Humanity: A Digest of the Case Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.” Professor Trahan wishes to acknowledge her late mother, Elizabeth Welt Trahan, a Five broad areas of offences have been recognized by bodies such as the G8, Interpol, EU, UN Environment Programme and the UN Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute. The impact of this double loss is significant if one recalls that of all the situations cur- Cumulative prosecution of foreign terrorist fighters for core international crimes and terrorism-related offences 19 May 2020 | 2020/00153 | DOCUMENT. Most significantly, general legal rules on the exercise of jurisdiction no longer apply. (1) This Act may be called the International Crimes (Tribunals) Act, 1973. << /Length 14 0 R /N 3 /Alternate /DeviceRGB /Filter /FlateDecode >> Get Free Individual Criminal Responsibility For Core International Crimes Textbook and unlimited access to our library by created an account. Attachment(s) 2020-05_Report-on-cumulative-prosecution-of-FTFs_EN.PDF. /TT4 11 0 R /TT2 9 0 R >> >> international crimes, namely genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, and to enable Kenya to co-operate with the International Criminal Court established by the Rome Statute in the performance of its functions PART I – PRELIMINARY 1. CRIME AND CRIMINALITY It is criminal to steal a purse, It is daring to steal a fortune. against these crimes. ICL.pdf (“International criminal law strictu sensu establishes criminal responsibility directly under inter-national law.”); Neil Boister, Transnational Criminal Law?, 14 Eur. 1 The term and concept of ‘war crimes’ is not used uniformly. Accountability for international crimes: From conjecture to reality by Jelena Pejic A t a 1987 international colloquium devoted to the Nurem-berg trials Professor Eric David posed a hypothetical ques-tion — could Augusto Pinochet be arrested and tried in Belgium for acts such as enforced disappearances, extra- Antonio Cassese and Paola Gaeta. Download and Read online Individual Criminal Responsibility For Core International Crimes ebooks in PDF, epub, Tuebl Mobi, Kindle Book. Yet despite the fact that environmental crime poses a growing threat, it remains a low priority for the international enforcement community. ߏƿ'� Zk�!� $l$T����4Q��Ot"�y�\b)���A�I&N�I�$R$)���TIj"]&=&�!��:dGrY@^O�$� _%�?P�(&OJEB�N9J�@y@yC�R �n�X����ZO�D}J}/G�3���ɭ���k��{%O�חw�_.�'_!J����Q�@�S���V�F��=�IE���b�b�b�b��5�Q%�����O�@��%�!BӥyҸ�M�:�e�0G7��ӓ����� e%e[�(����R�0`�3R��������4�����6�i^��)��*n*|�"�f����LUo�՝�m�O�0j&jaj�j��.��ϧ�w�ϝ_4����갺�z��j���=���U�4�5�n�ɚ��4ǴhZ�Z�Z�^0����Tf%��9�����-�>�ݫ=�c��Xg�N��]�. 1. Because existing laws in many countries are not tailored to deal with cybercrime, criminals increasingly conduct crimes on the Internet in order to take advantages of the less severe punishments or difficulties of being traced. Average BACRIM Bandas criminals (criminal gangs) BPD Barrels per day CAR Central African Republic CFT Combatting the financing of terrorism CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered … Obviously, one can think of their particularly heinous, inhumane character that shocks the conscience of humanity, but there are more possibilities. Document ID. The international-law aspect of the definition distinguishes an international crime from a domestic crime: although some acts that qualify as domestic crimes are universally criminal – murder, for example – their universality derives not from international law, but from the fact that every state in the world has independently decided to criminalize them. Research examines developments in international criminal law and the work of the International Criminal Court. The most popular textbook available in the field, providing a concise introduction to both international criminal law and international criminal procedure The European Union and its Member States have been at the forefront of the fight against impunity for core international crimes, collectively providing political, technical and financial assistance to international, regional and domestic accountability efforts. In the aftermath of World War II, the Allied powers launched the first international war crimes tribunal, known as the Nuremberg Trials, to prosecute top Nazi officials. PDF | The articles describes the concept and definition of war crimes in International Criminal Law and International Humanitarian Law | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate As the International Criminal Court (―ICC‖) begins its work investigating wartime atrocities and prosecuting those who are criminally responsible, it will encounter countless acts of sexual violence. x�XMo�6��WL�fm9ʄ�i����m{�{ Call for Papers: New Technologies and the Investigation of International Crimes Special Issue. It wasn’t until the 1990s, however, that many governments coalesced around the idea of a Environmental crimes can be broadly 66/2009.] Available translations: en. Fast Download speed and ads Free! In 2002, the Rome Statute established the International Criminal Court (ICC). Individual Criminal Responsibility For Core International Crimes. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. 13 0 obj International crimes have been prosecuted by a range of international and national courts—the International Criminal Court, established by the Rome Statute in 1998 (signed so far by 123 countries) and based in The Hague, has jurisdiction over all of them. By criminalizing gross violations of human rights2 and serious violations of international humanitarian law, it exposes perpetrators of such conduct to criminal liability. Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, First session, New York, 3-10 September 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. International crime definition is - a crime (as piracy, illicit trade in narcotics, slave trading) in violation of international law. %��������� Cyber crime is a social crime that is increasing worldwide day by day. So the cyber crime investigation is becoming a very complicated task to do without a proper framework. international law accords to state officials, the reasons for the conferment of this immunity and whether they apply in cases in which it is alleged that the official has committed an international crime. Most of these crimes mirror those crimes applicable in interna­ tional armed conflicts as "otherserious violations". After reviewing the International comparisons of criminal justice statistics in 2000, I noticed that table B shows the murder 4 0 obj << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> 5 0 obj File type. International crime and justice is an emerging field that covers crime and justice from a global perspective. INTERNATIONAL CRIME “This case involves some of the most serious criminal acts ruled on by Dutch criminal courts since the end of World War II.” (Ruling by the Court of Appeal, the Hague in the 2001 case against Joseph M.) War crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity, and torture: international crimes and offenses of the most serious sort. “crimes against international law are committed by men, not abstract entities, and only be punishing individuals who commit such crimes can the provisions of international law be enforced.” Prosecution represents an important form of legal protection. endobj E�6��S��2����)2�12� ��"�įl���+�ɘ�&�Y��4���Pޚ%ᣌ�\�%�g�|e�TI� ��(����L 0�_��&�l�2E�� ��9�r��9h� x�g��Ib�טi���f��S�b1+��M�xL����0��o�E%Ym�h�����Y��h����~S�=�z�U�&�ϞA��Y�l�/� �$Z����U �m@��O� � �ޜ��l^���'���ls�k.+�7���oʿ�9�����V;�?�#I3eE妧�KD����d�����9i���,�����UQ� ��h��6'~�khu_ }�9P�I�o= C#$n?z}�[1 endobj endobj endobj Article 2 Relationship of the Court with the United Nations It shall be a permanent institution and shall have the power to exercise its jurisdiction over persons for the most serious crimes of international concern, as referred to in this Statute, and shall be complementary to national criminal jurisdictions. 4�.0,` �3p� ��H�.Hi@�A>� The idea of having an International Tribunal on Crimes Against Women was conceived at FemO, during an international feminist camp in Denmark, August, 1974, as a feminist response to the U.N. declared International Women’s Year. Short title This Act may be cited as the International Crimes Act, 2008. How­ ever, even if a post­conflict state takes this latter option, the state should nonetheless include the international offenses in its new criminal legislation. (2) … None of these, however, attract the same attention as genocide does. 1088 PDF. In the second edition of his book Principles of International Criminal Law, Werle identified three cumulative conditions for an offence to fa… crimes of international concern, as referred to in this Statute, and shall be complementary to national criminal jurisdictions. 7 0 obj %PDF-1.3 Cassese's International Criminal Law. fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law that this book endeavours to address. 1This book mostly deals with the practices and jurisprudence of the the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (hereinafter—ICTY), the International Criminal Tribunal for << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Resources 6 0 R /Contents 4 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] persons for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and other crimes under international law, and for matters connected therewith; It is hereby enacted as follows:-Short title, extent and commencement 1. On Monday, 14 July, Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo of the International Criminal Court (ICC) filed an application for an arrest warrant and submitted to the Judges of the ICC Pre-Trial Chamber evidence of crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in Darfur by the Sudanese President, Omar Hassan al-Bashir (Read here the Application for warrant of arrest [PDF]). Initial notions of the concept of international crimes began to emerge in the Roman Empire with the writings of jurist Marcus Tullius Cicero and the concept of hostes humani generis, the enemies of humanity.This concept was used by writers as from the 17 th century to refer to the perpetrators of international crimes such as piracy and slavery. Average BACRIM Bandas criminals (criminal gangs) BPD Barrels per day CAR Central African Republic CFT Combatting the financing of terrorism CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered … 14 0 obj O*��?�����f�����`ϳ�g���C/����O�ϩ�+F�F�G�Gό���z����ˌ��ㅿ)����ѫ�~w��gb���k��?Jި�9���m�d���wi獵�ޫ�?�����c�Ǒ��O�O���?w| ��x&mf������ A1�v�jp ԁz�N�6p\W� p�G@ h�bbd``b`~ $��qH�=I\�@��$V$XҀ�3q$v �eɶ eQ !�H��qe���w�,Fj��6 0 #1W endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 115 0 obj <>stream International criminal law is a subset of public international law, and is the main subject of these materials. This part is meant for skilled professionals who are familiar with research methodology and statistics. ��.3\����r���Ϯ�_�Yq*���©�L��_�w�ד������+��]�e�������D��]�cI�II�OA��u�_�䩔���)3�ѩ�i�����B%a��+]3='�/�4�0C��i��U�@ёL(sYf����L�H�$�%�Y�j��gGe��Q�����n�����~5f5wug�v����5�k��֮\۹Nw]������m mH���Fˍe�n���Q�Q��`h����B�BQ�-�[l�ll��f��jۗ"^��b���O%ܒ��Y}W�����������w�vw����X�bY^�Ю�]�����W�Va[q`i�d��2���J�jGէ������{�����׿�m���>���Pk�Am�a�����꺿g_D�H��G�G��u�;��7�7�6�Ʊ�q�o���C{��P3���8!9������-?��|������gKϑ���9�w~�Bƅ��:Wt>���ҝ����ˁ��^�r�۽��U��g�9];}�}��������_�~i��m��p���㭎�}��]�/���}������.�{�^�=�}����^?�z8�h�c��' The historical background Prosecuting International Crimes in Africa: Rationale, Prospects and Challenges 935 from losing ‘ad hoc referral’ by African non-States Parties to the Rome Statute. When allegations of genocide are raised, the world pricks up its ears. The historical background stream International cybercrimes often challenge the effectiveness of domestic and international law and law enforcement. Related tags: Genocide Network, Casework report. 16-284 Crime and Criminality Chapter 16. After reviewing the International comparisons of criminal justice statistics in 2000, I noticed that table B shows the murder rate in New York City is 8.77 with a total of 1,977 homicides in the years 1998 to 2000 and that the murder rate in Washington, DC is 45.79 with a total of 733 homicides in the years 1998 to 2000. Traditionally, international law has defined very few crimes, proscribing only acts generally viewed as a serious threat to the interests of the international community as a whole or to its most fundamental values. There are many activities that can be characterized as transnational organ-ized crime, including drug trafficking, smuggling of migrants, endstream 2020/00153. International Criminal Court. Ⱦ�h���s�2z���\�n�LA"S���dr%�,�߄l��t� stream International criminal law is the body of law that prohibits certain categories of conduct deemed to be serious crimes, regulates procedures governing investigation, prosecution and punishment of those categories of conduct, and holds perpetrators individually accountable for their commission. [L.N. Introduction back to top Introduction . 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